With hydroponics, you don’t use soil. Instead, a water-based mineral nutrient solution is used to feed the plants. They still require a growing medium, or substrate, which is a substance to grow in. The medium gives the plant maximum exposure to the nutrients it requires and aids in supplying moisture and oxygen to the root system. By using a grow medium, soil-borne diseases and pests are completely eliminated as a concern. Additionally, it implies that you may cultivate food even in locations with weak or nonexistent soil.
Coco peat - Coco peat, commonly known as coconut coir, is nothing more than crushed up coconut husk. It is affordable and compressible. Simply purchase some compacted coconut coir, add some water, and it will unquestionably expand to impossibly large sizes. The drawback is that it might really drown your plants if you're not careful because it can hold a lot of water.
Clay pellets - One of the most widely used grow media ever since it can be used virtually endlessly. The air-to-water ratio is good. It comes in sizes that are actually quite useful, retains a respectable amount of water, and has a pH-balanced composition. The drawback is that roots could dry out because it normally drains and dries quickly.
Perlite - In gardening, rather well-known. It is essentially a very light, porous volcanic glass that has been air-puffed. It holds oxygen fairly well. Because it is so light, a different sort of growing medium must be added for it to work properly.
Rockwool - A product derived mostly from granite or limestone that has been heated to a molten condition and spun at high speed to produce an interwoven matrix of fine fibers. Rockwool is one of the most commonly used media in hydroponics. This medium is a common option for starter cubes because it is great for hydroponics, is sterile, non-degradable, and porous. It can contain a lot of water and air, and it gives a nice structure to hold plants steady.